Monday, 31 August 2015

Electronics and Propulsion System in RC Flying - Part 2 - Servo

2. Servo
  • Servos are the end units in a radio control chain.
  • They are used to move the aircraft's control surfaces, the motor throttle (in IC engines) and to actuate other devices such as retractable landing gears etc..
  • There are two types of servos – Digital and Analog Servos.
  • A servo consists of basically a motor, gearbox, feedback potentiometer and an electronic control board inside a plastic case.
  • Outside are the servo arm and the servo cable and plug.
  • The servo arm is often a plastic piece with holes on it for attaching push rods  or other mechanical linkages.
  • There are linear and rotary servos, the most famous are the rotary servos whose arm rotates about 45 degrees left and right from its center point. 
The picture below shows some servo hardware attachments, such as mounting screws,rubber pads, and different sorts of servo arms.

  • RC servos convert electrical commands from the receiver back into movement.
  • A servo simply plugs into a specific receiver channel and is used to move that specific part of the RC model. This movement is proportional meaning that the servo will only move as much as the transmitter stick on your radio is moved.
  • All RC servos have a three wire connector. One wire supplies positive DC voltage – usually 5 to 6 volts. The second wire is for voltage ground, and the third wire is the signal wire.
  • The receiver controls the servo through this wire by means of a simple on/off pulsed signal.
  • Servos basically come in 3 different sizes (micro, standard, and giant or 1/4 scale) to accommodate the type of RC models they are being used in. 
  • Other than physical size, the next item that all RC servo specifications indicate is speed and torque. 
  • Speed is a measurement of the time it takes the servo to rotate a certain number of degrees.
  • This has been standardized in most specifications to 60 degrees; In other words, the time it takes the servo wheel to turn 60°. The smaller the number, the faster the servo is.
  • Torque determines the maximum amount of rotational force the servo can apply.This specification is measured in ounces per inch (oz-in) or in kilograms per centimeter (kg-cm).
  • Both speed and torque specifications are usually given for the two common voltages used for receiver battery packs 4.8 to 6.0 volts .
 Digital Servos vs. Analog Servos
  • First off, there is no physical or main component difference between a digital servo or analog servo.
  • The servo case, motor, gears, and even the feed back potentiometer all have the same functions and operations in both types. 
  • The difference between the two is how the signal from the receiver is processed and how this information is used to send power to the servo motor.
Analog Servo Operation 
  • An analog RC servo controls the speed of the motor by applying on and off voltage signals or pulses to the motor. This voltage is constant (the voltage of the receiver battery pack, voltage regular, or BEC to be exact - 4.8 to 6.0 volts).
  • This on off frequency is standardized to 50 cycles a second. The longer each on pulse is, the faster the motor turns and the more torque it produces. 
  • In analog servo, a short power pulse every 20 milliseconds doesn’t get the motor turning that quickly or allow it enough time to produce much torque.
  • This is the draawback with all analog servos; they don’t react fast or produce much torque when given small movement commands or when external forces are trying to push them off their holding position.
  • This area of slow sluggish response and torque is called deadband.
Digital Servo Operation
  • A small microprocessor inside the servo analyzes the receiver signals and processes these into very high frequency voltage pulses to the servo motor.
  • Instead of 50 pulses per second in analog servo, the motor will now receive upwards of 300 pulses per second.
  • The pulses will be shorter in length of course, but with so many voltage pulses occurring, the motor will speed up much quicker and provide constant torque.
  • The result is a servo that has a much smaller deadband, faster response, quicker and smoother acceleration, and better holding power
  • You can test this very easily by plugging in a digital servo and an analog servo to your receiver.
  • In analog servo try to turn the servo wheel off center, notice how you will be able to move it slightly before the servo starts to respond and resist the force - it feels a bit spongy. 
  • Now do the same thing with the digital servo. It feels like the servo wheel and shaft are glued to the case – it responds that fast and holds that well.
  • Now nothing is perfect and this increase in speed, torque, and holding power does come with a small disadvantage. Power Consumption!
  • Digital servos are power hungry. All those hundreds of power pulses per second use up more battery power than an analog servo . 
Core less & Brush-less Servo Motors 
  • Most low cost and standard servos (analog or digital) use what is called a 3 pole electric motor. This is just a standard 3-pole wire wound DC motor – the most common type of DC motor in existence.
  • One step up from the 3 pole is the 5 pole servo motor. As you can imagine, two more wire winding will give a 5 pole motor quicker acceleration and more torque on start up.
 Core-less Servo Motors: 
  • A standard 3-pole wire wound servo motor uses a steel core with wires wound around the core, this core is then surrounded by permanent magnets.
  • As you can imagine, the core and all that wire weighs a fair bit. When voltage is applied to turn the motor, it has to first overcome this weight to get things turning – it is slow to accelerate. Once up to speed, it also continues to turn for a while when the voltage is removed – it is slow to decelerate.
  • In a Core-less design, the heavy steel core is eliminated by using a wire mesh that spins around the outside of the magnets. This design is much lighter resulting in quicker acceleration and deceleration. The result is smoother operation, more available torque, and faster response time. 
RC Servo Bearings, Metal Gears, & Water Resistance 
Bearings: 
  • You will notice when you do servo shopping, specifications list of many servos shows bearings and the number of bearings – usually 1 or 2.
  • These bearings are used on the main servo output shaft instead of a simple bushing.
  • The advantages of having ball bearings on the output shaft in a servo – less friction and slop. 
Metal Gears & Metal Output Shafts:
  • With today's high torque and high speed digital servos, metal gears are getting more and more common.
  • They are a popular choice for several reasons, but strength is the obvious one. There are two downsides to metal gears however.
  • They weight is little more than plastic or nylon gears and they wear out a little faster. 
Water Resistant/Dust Proof RC Servos 
  • Some servos are sealed to prevent water and dust from seeping inside. The case have gaskets, there is an o-ring around the output shaft, and there is silicone sealant where the wires exit the servo case.
 Classification of Servos
Servos are generally classified as per weight 
  • Giant - weights around 100gr (3.5oz)
  • Standard - 45gr (1.6oz)
  • Mini - 20gr (.70oz)
  • Micro - 8gr (.28oz)
  • Pico - 5.5gr (.18oz)
  • Wes Technik - 2.1gr (.08oz)
  • Falcon Servo - 1.7 gr 
Servo – Manufactures Data

Hobby King S0361 3.6g / .45kg / .12sec
Specifications:
Operating Voltage: 4.8~6.0V
Operating Speed (4.8V): 0.12sec/60°
Operating Speed (6.0V): 0.10sec/60°
Stall Torque (4.8V): 0.30kg.cm
Stall Torque (6.0V): 0.45kg.cm
Idle current: 4mA  Running current: 120mA
Hold current: 350mA   Weight: 3.6g (.13oz)
Connector: Standard JR Style
Type: Analog Micro

Turnigy TGY-50090M Metal Gear 9g Analog
Specs: Weight: 9g
Size: 23.1mmx12.0mmx25.9mm
Torque: 1.6kg.cm (4.8v)2 kg.cm (6.0v)
Speed: 0.08 sec/60deg (4.8v)0.07 sec/deg (6.0v)
Voltage: 4.8-6.0v
Type: Analog Miini
Gear Train: Metal
Ball Bearing: No
Lead Length: 240mm
Plug: JR/Futaba
In the above example of Manufactures data, highlighted details are the specifications you should look and compare.
How to select a Servo for your model.
  1. When you are going to buy servos, carefully go through the manufactures data.
  2. Check whether it is analog or digital servo. (digital means more cost).
  3. The choice is as per your model. If the model you are going to make is an EDF Jet better select digital servos. If it is a basic trainer analog servo will work fine.
  4. Check the working voltage. ( High voltage servos are also avialiable ).
  5. Check the torque and weight as per your model. (Big / high speed models requires high torque servos).
  6. Check the gear train - metal or plastic. ( metal servo cost is more ).
  7. Other specifications such as ball bearing, water resistant, coreless, etc.. are also important, but for beginner models you can compromise on this for saving cost.
  8. Finally select a servo which suits your budget and requirement.

Electronics and Propulsion System in RC Flying Part 1 - Electronics - Radio Control.

Electronics involved in RC Modelling.
  1. Radio Control.
  2. Servo.
  3. Electronic Speed Controller (ESC).
  4. Battery.
  5. Flight Controllers.
  6. FPV (First Person View) Equipment. 
  7. Misc Items.
Propulsion.
  1. IC Engine.
  2. Electric Motor.
1. Radio Control - Transmitter & Receiver(Tx-Rx).
  • A transmitter is a handheld device that transmits a signal according to the input given by pilot/operator that is picked up by a receiver and then given to different devices fitted to control a RC-Aircraft .
  • Most RC transmitters nowadays work on the 2.4 Ghz frequency.
  • RC transmitters can be classified according to how many channels they have.
  • Channels are the number of things you can control.
  • For a typical RC plane it has a rudder, elevator, ailerons, and a motor: so a 4 channel transmitter is required.
  • Modern transmitters are having 6 or more channels. Four channels are used for rudder,elevator, ailerons, motor, and  AUX channels can be used for controlling various things, such as bomb drops or air brakes, under carriage , flight control, etc.
  • Transmitter can either be computer programmable, in-radio programming, or non-programmable. Computer programmable transmitters has to be connected to a computer via a USB cable to change/modify program/settings of the transmitter.
  • In-radio programmable transmitters have a a small LCD screen on the front with several buttons for programming.
  • Non programmable basic Tx may have servo reversal, V-tail and Delta wing selection with the help of switches. 
  • Programming a radio allows us to change most settings, such as reversing the direction of a servo ,changing the functions of the AUX switches, dual rates for servos, timers, throttle hold, hovering control , setting end points for the servo, etc.
  • A typical RC Transmitter has about 4 to 6 channels with at least 4 of them being proportional, which means the controlled surfaces or devices will move proportionally to the movements of the control sticks.
The example below shows a five channel RC Transmitter with two joysticks (left/right and up/down movement) enabling four proportional channels, while the fifth channel is of switch type (on/off).


The example shows the mode 2 configuration (most common) having the elevator control on the right joystick and the motor throttle on the left one. 
The right joystick self centers in the both axis, whereas the left joystick only self centers in left/right axis. The mode one configuration has the elevator control on the left joystick and the throttle on the right one.  
  • The modern RC Transmitters have "dual-rate" facility, which means the pilot may change the max throw angle of the control surfaces during the flight, e.g. the max throw may be reduced when flying fast and increased when flying slow.
  • Many Transmitters have a servo-reversing feature, which facilitates the changing the direction of servo movement.
  • Other feature such as channel mixing enables V-tail configuration and flaperons.
  • Some Transmitters include a microprocessor and memory, enabling the user  to save different model configurations and settings.
  • Another facility is the so-called buddy box, which allows two compatible transmitters being connected by a cable.
  • This is used for training purposes where a transmitter is held by the instructor and the other by the student.
  • The student may control the model as long as the instructor holds down a push- button on his/her own transmitter.
  • When the student get in trouble, the instructor releases the push-button, and quickly takes over the control.
  • The RC Transmitter sends data to the RC Receiver by generating a modulated radio frequency carrier, while the Receiver is tuned to detect the Transmitter's carrier frequency.
  • The accuracy of sending and receiving frequencies are usually achieved by the use of crystals.
  • The Receiver detects data from the modulated carrier, decodes and deliver it to the respective Servo, Electronic Speed Controller, control boards and any other electronic devices used on board.
  • Current technology in the R/C hobby is called "Spread Spectrum". This is a radio system that can be used without having to worry about what frequency you're on.
  • The 2.4GHz system comes with a unique, permanent ID code that is preset at the factory.
  • Pushing the bind button locks the receiver to the transmitter using that code.
  • It's the only code that it will recognize - and since it has over 134 million possible codes, there's no chance of a signal conflict.
There are several data encoding/decoding systems on the market today.
  • PPM (Pulse Position Modulation).
  • PCM System-PCM stands for Pulse Code Modulation.
  • IPD System -IPD stands for Intelligent Pulse Decoding, and the receiver incorporates a processor, which analyses the incoming signal for validity. 
  • DSR System-DSR stands for Digital Signature Recognition.(The DSR receivers block the interference by memorising the actual transmitter's unique signal frame and rejecting all the others, even if they are in the same frequency.)
How to select your Tx-Rx.
  • If you are a beginner  you can start learning flying with a basic 4 channel Tx-Rx.
  • A basic 6 channel computer Tx-Rx with memory and limited programming functions will be a better choice if you are going to make this as a serious hobby.
  • The difference in price of a 4 ch and 6 ch Tx-Rx is very less and more over a 6 ch with programming function will allow you to add additional functions and controls to your models.
  • Basic programmable 6 ch Tx-Rx will be a good selection, with this you can start learning flying and additional 2 channels avialiable can be used for flight controller application in multi rotors and airplanes.
  • As you improve upon your skills and finally when you becomes an expert you can opt for high end Tx-Rx models.
  • Before selecting a Tx-Rx you should go through the manufactures data and check the functions avialiable and make sure that it suits your requirement and budget.
  • You should check with different manufactures and suppliers before finalising your order.
  • Same specification products price vary with suppliers and manufactures, proper comparison and survey will save you a lot of money.
Receiver
  • The RC receiver (Rx) picks up the control signal sent from the transmitter and converts the signal into PWM signals (pulse width modulation) for servos , ESCs (electronic speed controller) and other devices connected to AUX Channel .
  • The transmitter and receiver are wirelessly bound together using a process called,  binding. 
  • Once the binding is done for a Tx-Rx combination, the receiver will not work with other Transmitters.
  • The receiver get power from the ESC, which converts the battery volts down to 5v for the receiver and servos.
  • Range of the TX/RX system depends on the transmission power of the Tx and field conditions.
Given below is an example for manufactures data.
Turnigy 6XS FHSS -  2.4ghz Computer Transmitter w/6 Model Memory Inc 7 Ch Receiver
(Mode 2)
Features: Dual Rate/Trims/Gear/Flap/Gyro Gain Adjust/Flight Mode/Throttle Hold/Hover Pitch Switches / Trainer Port /Charging Port / LCD Screen/ Easy to use Programming & Navigation Buttons/ Supports Heli/Standard Wing/Elevon/V-Tail/ 6 Model Memory/ Model Name/ 4 Stick Mode Selectable/ Trainer Mode
Basic Programme Functions:
Dual Rates/ Sub Trim/ Travel Adjust/ Channel Reverse/ Swash Mix/ Gyro Sensitivity/ Throttle Curve/ Monitor/ Pitch Curve/ Throttle Hold/ Model Name/ Timer
Turnigy 6XS Transmitter Specs:
Frequency: 2.4ghz ISM Frequency Range/  Modulation: GFSK
Spread Spectrum Mode: FHSS
Number of Frequency Channels: 20
Output Power: <=20dbm
Working Current: <=100mA
Working Voltage: 1.2v x 4 (AA/Nimh)
Dimensions: 200mm x 185mm x 105mm 
Turnigy XR700 Receiver Specs:
Channel: 7 (inc RX Battery Input)
Frequency: 2.4g ISM Frequency Range
Power: 4.5v ~ 9.6v/<30ma
Net Weight: 11.5g
Dimensions: 41mm x 28mm x 14mm 
Requires:4 x AA Type Battery For Operation
  • Highlighted things are the features you should look for and compare.
  • Mode 1 - Throttle control on your right hand.
  • Mode 2 - Throttle control on your left hand.
  • Mode selection is one of the main feature you should carefully select.
  • Some manufactures offers user changeable mode selection in their transmitters.
Binding of Tx-Rx.

  • Binding procedure for the Tx-Rx will be given by the manufacturer.
  • Most of the Tx-Rx come with factory bidden receiver.
  • But some times binding is required to be done by the user, especially when you use a second receiver of same make to your collection.
  • I will briefly explain the common binding procedure.
  • Switch on your Tx. (select it to binding mode if instructed by manufacturer or leave it simply in ON condition).
  • Press down and hold the binding button on your Rx and power ON your Rx with 5v supply or by using BEC of ESC as specified by manufacturer.
  • LED indicator on your Rx will be blinking for some time and then turns to solid ON. (normally RED blinking followed by solid GREEN or RED blinking and then solid RED).
  • Power Off your Rx first and then Tx.
  • Switch ON your Tx first and power on your Rx. The LED indicator on your Rx should remain solid RED/GREEN.
  • Connect a servo to on of the Rx channel and check the operation by moving that corresponding channel lever/switch in your Tx.
  • If the servo is moving as per your input then the binding is complete, if not repeat the above procedure till solid binding takes place.
  • Binding is required to be done only once, then the Tx data will remain stored in Rx.
Various Brands Tx-Rx
Basic 3ch Tx.
 Fly Sky Basic 4 channel Tx  with channel reversing function
Hobby King Basic 4 channel Tx. with channel reversing ,
V-tail and Delta Wing mixing function.
JR-Propo advanced fully programmable Transmitter(Tx) - DSX7, 7 channel.
Various brand 6 channel Receivers (RX)
Avionic 6 channel programmable Tx.- Entry level and cheap. Good performance and advised for a beginner.
 JR-Propo 7 Channel RX
 DX6i Computer Tx.
 Fly Sky fully programmable Tx.

Friday, 28 August 2015

Welcome

Welcome
  • Are you interested to join the exciting world of RC-Aircrafts?
  • Are you interested to start this RC hobby and don’t know how to begin?
  • Then you have come to the right place!
  • You can start this RC hobby for you, or for your children or grand children and take them away from video games and TV.......age is not a barrier for a beginning (I started this hobby at the age of 39 years).
  • Take the children to the open ground, make them healthy....
  • Improve your children’s creativity and ability.....
  • Fill your weekends with fun and excitement.........
  • School and college students can make good projects... ...
  • Elders can fulfill their childhood dreams of flying like birds.......
Welcome and Hello to all those who are interested in RC Flying, specially to those who want to start this hobby by making their own RC-Aircrafts (Scratch Building).

Experienced people already in this field are also welcomed, your valuable experience and expertise will help me and fellow hobbyists to improve upon.
  • Building RC-Aircrafts can become a true passion.
  • Many of you may be flying or flown ready to fly models (RTF) under guidance of instructors.
  • But the joy of building them from the plans on the paper and raw materials (from scratch) is a challenge and the same time a lot of fun.
  • My love for Airplanes started when I joined IAF in 1991. After quitting IAF in 2011.I joined a private University as Senior Technical Assistant in Aerospace Department.
  • After the service life I started this hobby for helping my students who were struggling to build their rc models and also for my son and daughter who started loving airplanes while we ware in IAF.
  • Now I spend hours for building rc-aircrafts, experimenting with them,in my college with students and in my home with family, while in home sometime my wife also gets involved, so it becomes a family fun.
  • Whether you have kids and grand kids,school going or college going, married or unmarried,  building RC planes is fun and challenging way to spend your time.
  • If you agree with me.   Then Keep Reading... 
  1. Are you interested in building a radio control aircraft the right way ?
  2. Are you confused about where to start ?
  3. Wondering whether you will be able to build one and fly it the right way ?
If so, you are not alone. 
Be with me and keep visiting this page.
We will learn to build RC-Aircrafts, we will learn how to fly....
  • Without a guru, building rc-aircrafts on your own is not something that you can easily learn in one or two days.
  • But,if you build a number of them on your own ,you will get enough experience to build them correctly.
  • If you have a guru, somebody to give you tips that could save your time and help you to build your rc-aircraft from scratch.Even if it is the first time you are going to build one.
  • This is where rcplanesguru is going to help you.
What is your interest in getting into a hobby like building RC planes ?
  • Most likely you are looking to build one model rc-aircraft and then fly it for fun, or you may be looking for some good project for your school or college, or you just want to make use of some materials lying around and convert them into something use full.
  • Whatever your interest may be, the question is, How you are going to proceed to get there ?
  • Any time you can quit reading this and tell yourself that you will learn how to do this on your own, still you have to read some books or search for other web sites or blogs offering the same.
If you are really interested, you can take advantage of my experience of building RC aircrafts with materials lying around, available in our local market or at least available in our country. No need to import expensive kits and materials.

  • Building RC-Aircrafts without having the basic knowledge of what you are getting into can end your dreams for this RC hobby very soon.
  • There is no way for beginner to know how to proceed when they plan about building an RC-Aircraft.
  • Even though I had nobody to help me build…..I tried to do it on my own (I was determined ) and learnt from my mistakes.
  • How many times this type of thinking happened to you?
  • When we start building RC-Aircrafts, the first difficulty we have to overcome is not feeling comfortable by all the parts you have to cut, glue, sand and shape, as per the plan that is in front of you.
  • The best way is, organisation, this is the key to success and managing the physical work required to cut and shape all parts.
  • You will be well ahead than all other beginner builders when you practice this step.
  • Learn to build RC-Aircrafts from scratch, make use of unused things lying around your house, work place, even the near by dump yard,we can recycle many things and thus help the environment - save mother earth and save money.
  • Try to develop your own techniques after learning from this forum or any other forums.
  • I promise, leave your confusion and worries. I will help you to use things which are lying around you as waste and many more building tips, too many to list here!
  • have made many beginner mistakes  and now you can avoid making the same mistakes..
  • No need to worry when you pick up broken pieces after a crash of an airplane for which you spent many hours building, you can rebuild it within no time and fly again,just because you learned to construct RC-Aircrafts.
  • We will learn how to become organised, what are the minimum tools required, how to read all the plans and instructions, and how to cut out or make all the parts we need.
  • Relax and take a deep breath, we can do this.
  • You are going to start your first scratch building project with an experienced and successful building guide.
  • No worrying, now you can build it straight, strong and you are going to do this with every radio control aircraft you want to build.
  • We will be making use of all the free plans, techniques,photos and videos of expert people in this field with application part from my own experience.
  • It will be like a professional instructor helping you in every step throughout the entire building process.
Are you anxious to start building ?

  • If you have decided on a plan or model, purchased or arranged all the basic tools and materials required, thought about making use of the things lying around you.
  • But wait. Did you thought about the place where you will build your plane?
  • You have to select a proper place, let me tell you why it is so important?
  • Choosing a correct place or table to build your airplane is important.
  • Building on an uneven surface is not advisable, if you cannot build them straight,you cannot fly them straight.
  • Sometimes you have to leave your models for a long time after gluing with some weights and clips attached. 
  • There is no way to build a flying airplane if you forget this important step.
  • So your first step is to arrange at least one good table or a flat surface and a work place (can be an empty corner in your house, back side of a garage,an empty shed).
  • Do not worry about the instructions on materials required, tools and methods to follow when you select a plan from a designer.
  • You can always follow my method of doing it, use whatever is available with you or things you can by, methods or steps you can develop, while keeping things as accurate as specified by the original designer,otherwise the performance of your end product will not be satisfactory.
  • Build up your basic theoretical knowledge about RC-Aircrafts before you actually start constructing one.
  • With each project you will become a master builder and in no time you can help others to build better models.
  • As you gain experience you can get through your building projects faster and find more time for flying.
  • Your ability to implement correct techniques from the beginning is the key to success.
  • If you can't build straight models you cant fly them at all.
  • It really is that simple.
  • Building an airplane must be done with accuracy and consistency.
  • You fly them first time and fly again and again if you follow the best techniques you could ever use.
  • How can you know about the things to buy ?.
  • What is the price and the right tools for the job ?.
  • How to make some critical parts that the instruction manual does not help you much ? 
  • As you can see there are a number of steps that must be performed  and they must be done in the right order.
  • All the books,web sites and blogs about building RC-Aircrafts are filled with requirements of specialized tools, equipment, covering materials and many other things, the list goes on, don’t worry we can use alternative things for all these stuff .
  • Building anything the first time takes time to complete,requires patience and organisational skills.
  • Don’t worry, just remember that, this is your first time building an RC-Aircraft from scratch.
  • I am trying to put together a simple and easy system for a beginner scratch builder to follow.
  • I am trying to cover almost everything involved in this hobby. Nothing has been left out.
  • You will be able to build a beautiful flying aircraft of your choice by the time you go through  all the articles.
  • As far as I know no body attempted such a thing, every body talks about buying kits and teach how to assemble them.
  • If you search any website, read any number of  books and you will not find everything you need from one source.
  • So,join with me,together we will make a scratch builders forum.
  • Build your RC-Aircrafts with confidence,fly them safely and enjoy....
  • Now, If you are really interested spent some time to go through the following pages.




















Notice and Legal Disclaimer

THERE ARE NO SPONSORS FOR ME. 
I want to tell you right now that this is not an inexpensive hobby to start. You should understand that you need to spend time and commit to it. You have to spend at least Rs.10000 /- minimum to start with your radio control aircraft construction and flying. There are a lot of costs involved, but you will be able to become more resourceful and make or find alternative to a lot of the things needed to complete your RC-Aircraft. I do not know your skill level, so I cannot guarantee your success with your building project. I cannot assume responsibility for the outcome of your RC building project. Please understand your building skills and try to get help when required. In this hobby you cannot afford to make too many mistakes. Be careful also, rotating propellers, lippo batteries and other electronic parts may cause injuries to personal if not handled properly. The builder and/or the pilot of the aircraft assumes all risk involved. RC-Aircrafts are not simple toys, for children parents guidance is required. I will not be responsible for any injuries or damages taking place during construction and flying of RC-Aircrafts.
Warnings
  1. Don not fly where flying is not permitted.
  2. Don not fly too close to buildings or public roads, or anywhere where you could be a nuisance to the public.
  3. Don not fly in an area with lots of trees, power lines and other obstacles.
  4. Don not fly close to people at anytime, RC-Aircrafts can cause injuries to people and damage to properties.
  5. Don not fly over or close to animals, wild or domestic, RC-Aircraft can cause panic in animals.
  6. Don not try and fly beyond your capabilities. Do not try advanced aerobatic maneuvers without mastering the basics.
  7. Don not fly over your head and behind you - it is the quickest way of getting completely disoriented and confused with what the aircraft is doing, very quickly you may loose control.
  8. Don not fly the aircraft too far away - it doesn't take long for an RC-Airplane, quad copter or helicopter to cover distance and become a tiny dot and you have no idea of what the aircraft is doing, which way is up etc. Again, a sure way to loose control due to disorientation.
  9. Don not fly on very windy days if your aircraft isn't designed with wind in mind. Different RC-Aircraft can handle different strength winds, but for a basic electric park flyer a wind of 5 mph could be too much. No wind or a gentle breeze is ideal.
  10. Don not turn on your transmitter if you see other flying. Check which frequency they are using first.
  11. Don not forget your pre-flight checks and range check.
  12. Don not fly if you are in any doubt about your aircraft or your situation. Wait for another day instead, or choose a safer area.
  13. The above mentioned warnings are related to flying in public places. Again, common sense should dictate how you fly.
  14. If you are flying at a club field you should know the club rules or follow and obey your instructor all times.
  15. Find out the rules and regulations applicable in your country, related to RC Flying and follow it.

Thursday, 27 August 2015

Photo Gallery 21 - My scratch built models - My Fleet

21. My Fleet
  • My current operational Fleet.
  • SU-37 EDF JET and Futana 3D plane are latest addition.
  • I use suitable components from old models on rotation basis for new models. (always I cant afford new components ).
  • Other serviceable models are currently under storage.










Photo Gallery 20 - My scratch built models - Pusher UAV

20. Pusher UAV
  • Modified design of Mikes Pusher UAV design.
  • Full HD Foam construction.
  • KFM 2 wing reinforced by carbon fiber tubes.
  • Pusher propeller.
  • Hand lounged.
  • Coloring by reflective tapes from local stationary shop and sketch pens.
  • Aileron and Elevator control, no rudder.
Mike's original design.

 CG balancing.



Photo Gallery 17 - My scratch built models - Super Bandit EDF Jet

17. Super Bandit EDF Jet
  • Depron foam and carbon fiber tubes.
  • 90 mm EDF
  • Constructed during initial stages, so fuselage finishing was not very good.
  • Color scheme using reflective tapes.
  • Flown two three times and crashed.
  • I was not up to the slandered to fly EDF jets that time. 90 mm EDF jet means lot of power and speed.
  • Undamaged parts used for other models.

 
 Checking CG
    Checking CG
  Checking CG
  Checking CG
Mini Bandit - Pusher Propeller
  • Same as big brother, lot of speed and highly sensitive to control inputs, not good for a beginner in this hobby.
  • Depro foam.
  • Covering used is sticker cutting sheet of lower quality (low price).
  • Not in use, components used for other models.



Photo Gallery 16 - My scratch built models - Mirage 2000 EDF Jet

16. Mirage 2000 EDF Jet
  • EPP foam and carbon fiber construction.
  • Virtually unbreakable.
  • EPP foam bounce back to shape after deformation.
  • EPP foam is costly and difficult to get in India.
  • Pusher propeller.
  • Delta wing
  • Araldite glue and cello tape used.
  • Constructed during initial stages, flown well
  • Now withdrawn from service. Components used for other models.
  • Little difficult to construct.




Photo Gallery 15 - My scratch built models - Chuck Glider

15. Chuck Glider
  • Full balsa wood.
  • Nose ballast weight is of solder wire.
  • Glides very well